(5G) technology

Navigating the fifth-generation wireless (5G) technology

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The newest advancement in cellular technology, known as fifth-generation wireless (5G) technology, is designed to significantly boost the speed and responsiveness of wireless networks. Data sent over wireless broadband connections can now move at multi gigabit speeds thanks to 5G, with some estimates putting peak speeds as high as 20 gigabits per second (Gbps). For applications that need real-time feedback, these speeds are advantageous because they offer latency of less than 5 milliseconds (MS) or less, which is faster than wireline network speeds. A significant increase in data transmission over wireless systems will be possible with 5G thanks to improved antenna technology and increased available bandwidth.

Over the course of the next few years, 5G networks and services will be gradually implemented to meet the growing demand for mobile and internet-enabled devices. As the technology is deployed, 5G is anticipated to produce a wide range of new uses, applications, and business cases.

Working Method of 5G

Wireless networks consist of cell sites that are segmented into sectors that transmit data over radio waves. 4G provides the basis for 5G, while 4G requires large, powerful cell towers to transmit signals over long distances.

  • Instead, 5G signals are sent through a large number of small cell sites located at light poles or on building roofs.
  • Multiple small cells are required because the mm wave spectrum—the band of spectrum from 30 to 300 Ghz that 5G uses to generate high-speed signals—travels only over small distances and is affected by weather and physical obstructions, such as buildings or trees.

Another approach — and arguably the more viable one –

  • Is to use a mix of high-, medium-, and low-band frequency. For example, Mm Wave could be deployed in dense urban areas, while lower- and mid-band nodes could be deployed in more sparsely populated areas.
  • The low-band frequencies, on the other hand, can travel farther and pass through more objects. For example, a single low-band node can remain connected to a high-band 5G device for hundreds of thousands of square miles.

An implementation of all three frequency bands will provide blanket coverage while delivering the fastest speeds in most congested areas.

Speed Of 5G

Currently, 5G download speeds are as high as 1,000 megabits per second (Mbps) or even as high as 2.1 Gbps.


  1. This could be seen by someone using a 5G device to stream a 1080p YouTube video without any buffering.
  2. Currently, downloading an episode of a Netflix show or an app could take several minutes, but now it only takes a few seconds.

Moreover, 4K wireless streaming becomes far more feasible. 5G download speeds over low bands could reach 30 to 250 Mbps. More rural areas are likely to have access to low-band 5G. With potential download speeds of 100 to 900 Mbps, 5G mid band technology is expected to be deployed in large cities.

Types of 5G

1.Fixed 5G wireless broadband services

5G fixed wireless broadband provides internet access to homes and businesses without the need for a wired connection. Network operators use NRs in small cell sites near buildings to transmit a signal to a receiver on a rooftop or windowsill, which is then amplified within the premises. This approach is expected to reduce the cost for operators to deliver broadband services to homes and businesses as it eliminates the need to install fiber optic lines to every residence. Instead, operators only need to install fiber optics at cell sites, and customers can access broadband services through wireless modems placed in their homes or workplaces.

2. 5G cellular services

5G cellular services grant users access to operators’ 5G cellular networks, which became available in 2019 with the release of the first 5G-enabled devices. The delivery of cellular services also relies on the completion of mobile core standards by 3GPP.

Availability of 5G on mobiles

5G doesn’t just come out of the blue. A phone or other piece of hardware isn’t going to be able to support 5G just because it gets a software update for 4G phones. 5G needs hardware. To use 5G, you’ll need a 5G-capable device, a 5G-supporting carrier, and a 5G-ready area within range.

Here are some 5G enabled phone examples

  • Samsung Galaxy S10 5G
  • Samsung Galaxy Note10+ 5G
  • OnePlus 7 Pro 5G
  • Moto z3
  • Xiaomi Mi MIX 3 5G
  • Huawei Mate X

Application of 5G

5G can be used for a variety of purposes, from business and enterprise applications to consumer use. Here are a few examples of 5G use cases.

  • High-quality video streaming
  • Communication between devices in an Internet of Things environment
  • Enhanced location tracking
  • Fixed wireless services
  • Low latency communication
  • Enhanced real-time analytics capabilities

For instance, a self-driving vehicle would need a high-speed, ultra-low-latency network slice to enable it to drive in real-time. On the other hand, a home appliance could be connected through a low-power, slow connection since high performance isn’t a priority. IoT could also benefit from secure data-only connectivity.

Difference between 4G and 5G

  • 4G supports up to 2Gbps and is continuing to increase in speed. 4G featured speeds are 500 times higher than 3G.
  • 5G features speeds are 100 times higher than 4G Latency is one of the key differences between the two, and 5G will experience much less latency.5G will use OFDM (Orthogonal Frequency-Division Multiplexing) encoding, like 4G LTE, but 4G uses 20 MHz channels. 5G, on the other hand, will use 160 MHz channels, while 4G uses 100 MHz to 800 MHz channels. This means that 5G will require larger blocks of spectrum.

The launch of 5G

The first 5G deployments are led by wireless network operators in the US, Japan, Korea and China. Network operators will invest billions of dollars in 5G capital expenditures through 2030, TBR Inc. notes, though it’s unclear how that investment will translate into a return on 5G services. Developing use cases and new business models that leverage 5G’s advantages could help address operators’ revenue challenges.

  • In the U.S., some 5G networks are already rolling out in select cities. For example, Verizon is currently deploying mm Wave 5G in select cities, such as Atlanta, Boise, Idaho, Boston, Chicago, Dallas, Detroit, Houston, New York, Providence, Rhode Island, and Washington, DC.
  • As time goes on, Verizon will expand its 5G coverage to additional cities, including San Diego, Kansas City, Mo, and more. T-Mobile’s 5G network covers Atlanta, Cleveland and Dallas, as well as Las Vegas and Los Angeles, and New York.

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